Basic Sourdough Loaf with Susan Lim of bread.natural.way
What is Sourdough?
Broken down to the bare basics, a simple loaf of sourdough consists of flour, water and salt. Add to that culture (also flour and water), warmth and time, and we get a loaf of bread that will hopefully turn you away from store-bought loaves for good.
An organic process (the oldest way to make bread, actually), baking a loaf of sourdough takes time and effort. Lots. It is after all the natural transformation of the above ingredients into something that will change your dietary life forever.
A key part of the whole process is fermentation. During fermentation, naturally occurring yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) work at breaking down the flour for food. LAB breaks down the flour to get carbohydrates for food, leaving sugars for the yeast. The yeast feed on the sugars, creating carbon dioxide, which causes the loaf to rise. Thus, flour is rendered into a state that is easily broken down and digested by us, being more suitable for people who suffer from certain digestive issues like gluten intolerance. Even those with a healthy digestive system will benefit, as their systems are not stressed, and over time will continue to maintain a healthy balance of gut microbes.
Acidity of the loaf inhibits mold development, so your bread lasts longer on your countertop (without chemical help).
The controlled release of sugars due to action by the LAB makes sourdough low GI by default (except for loaves with sweeteners).
Basic Ingredients of Sourdough
The basis of all bread baking. Each grain consists of the bran (13%), germ (3%), and endosperm (84%). Big, commercial roller mills usually will sift out the bran and germ, and the endosperm is processed further for commercial use. Stone-milled flour on the other hand, is generally considered healthier as it retains more of the original vitamins and minerals in the wheat grain, as stone mills are usually colder. Roller mills operate at higher temperatures and so burn off some of the nutrients in the process.
Water is the ‘link’ between the ingredients. Water temperature affects fermentation. Water volume affects crumb and texture. In Singapore, water can be used from the tap. Do not use NEWater or any type of de-oxygenated water. Water also provides food to organisms in the dough.
Salt, though used in small amounts in sourdough breads, is important as it strengthens gluten in the dough, controls fermentation and improves flavor. Always use sea/artisan salts as they are the least processed and therefore environmentally responsible.
0.3 starter : 1 flour : 1 water
About 4-6 hours before baking (aim is to increase the amount of starter by 3 times over 6 hours)
80g starter + 100g flour (I use 50g bread flour and 50g whole-wheat flour) + 100g water
For regular maintenance
Here is how to make your own Sourdough Starter.
A mathematical method to calculate the amounts of other ingredients relative to the total flour weight.
Basic Formula (always take into account that the starter has flour and water too)
Bread Flour 300g (100%)
Water 201g (70%)
Starter 60g (20% for 16-24 hours loaf fermentation)
Salt 7g (2%)
-For whole-wheat breads, substitute 10-30% whole wheat flour. When changing flours, always increase the quantity of water slowly by 5% and go by feel. This extra addition of water is called Bassinage.
-For same day bakes, increase starter to 40-60%. 4-6 hours loaf rise (fermentation) at room temperature.
Mix 300g flour and 201g water together in a bowl until well combined. Cover and set aside for 30 min – 2 hours.
Add 60g starter. Combine well, cover and set aside for another 30 minutes.
Add 7g salt. With wet hands, knead the salt into the dough. Set aside for 30 minutes.
Using “coil folds” or “stretching and folding” technique, work on the dough 3-4 times every 30 minutes until it starts to hold shape (about 2-3 hours in total). Once the dough starts to hold shape, continue to rest the dough for 1-2 hours until it increases in size by about 30%.
You can check fermentation at this stage using the "poke test". With floured fingers gently poke the dough using your index finger - if it bounces up slowly it's ready. If it rises too fast, it's under-fermented (continue to rest and ferment). If it leaves a dent, it's over-fermented.
Using lightly floured hands, stretch and fold the dough gently first into thirds. Rotate at a 90º angle, then roll it all the way up into a log. Lift it gently. Place it smooth side down into your banneton, seal the edges and butt cracks.
Cover with a shower cap, rest at room temperature for about an hour, then cold-proof in the refrigerator at 4-5ºC for 16-24 hours.
Score and bake
Three months ago, when you know COVID 19 decided that we all needed some time off, I, like many others got on the sourdough bandwagon. I am not a baker. I am a cook - I like to get creative in the kitchen and definitely don’t like following rules. I must admit the easiest part here was the starter - way easier than having my other two children. 6 days of easy labor and feeds every morning, and my third child Becky was born. Becky is my easiest child and an absolute angel; we feed her once a week and she will feed us for life. I wish I could get away by feeding my other two kids just flour and water too 😆.
You know who gets excited every time we leave Becky out for a feed - our helper Marissa. She goes, “Look Maam, Becky is breathing!” A neighbor overheard her through our kitchen window the other day and looked really concerned.
I was ready to bake and not just loaves - those have definitely been the biggest challenge which I see myself working on for the rest of my life, for no two loaves have been the same so far. And oh my, have I been longing to see those ears. What I have really enjoyed though is creating flatbreads with the discard - spiced pancakes, kimchi pancakes, Okonomiyaki, Jian Bing, Rotis, Naan... Best part has been to humor the family by putting the word “sourdough” in front of everything I make. My daughter says if I have another child 👶, I might name him/her “Sourdough Starter” 😂
Here is a little guide to how you can create your owner starter. I have used 50% bread flour and 50% whole-wheat flour for my starter, for best results. Hope you give it a try and as always, leave any questions you may have in comments.
Day 1: Start with 50g bread flour + 50g whole wheat flour + 100g water - stir well, I leave it loosely covered in a glass jar for 24 hours.
Day 2: You will see the batter start to ferment after 24 hours and double in size. Feed the bacteria and wild yeast in it with the same amount of flour and water - add 50g bread flour + 50g whole wheat flour + 100g water to the jar, stir well and set aside, loosely covered for another 24 hours.
Day 3: Same as day 2. Feed your fermented batter again with the same amount of flour and water - 50g bread flour + 50g whole wheat flour + 100g water, stir and cover.
Day 4: Set aside most of the fermented batter, leaving 2-3 tablespoons batter in the jar. Add 50g bread flour + 50g whole wheat flour + 100g water to the jar, stir well and set aside again for 24 hours. Don’t throw away the discard. The leftover batter you set aside can be used to make any of the delicious sourdough discard recipes below.
Day 5: same as day 4. Leave 2-3 tablespoons of fermented batter in the jar and feed it with - 50g bread flour + 50g whole wheat flour + 100g water. Stir well, set aside. Use leftover batter for pancakes etc.
Day 6: same as day 4 and 5.
Day 7: same as day 4, 5 and 6. On day 7, I usually wait for the batter to double in size (3-4 hours after the feed) and use it to make your sourdough loaf.
Any leftover starter on day 7 can be refrigerated and will need feeding just once a week. In cooler weather, I usually feed my starter the night before I want to make bread. In warm weather like in Singapore, I feed the starter in the morning, wait for a few hours for it to double in volume, then use it in my bread recipe. Leftover starter goes back in the fridge. Excess sourdough discard can be used to make any of the wonderful recipes below.
IT'S RECIPE TIME!!
Payal Thakurani is a cooking instructor, consulting chef, and author of the popular Southeast Asian cookbook “Curries for the Soul”. Originally based in Shanghai China, chef Payal has been in the food industry since 2012, working in training and brand development in central kitchens. She was also the proud owner of a cooking school and several food brands in Shanghai. She now lives in Singapore and heads Commune Kitchen in Downtown Gallery, where she hosts affordable, hands-on cooking classes for all ages.